澳洲简介

澳大利亚联邦(英语:Commonwealth of Australia,通称Australia;缩写:AU、AUS),简称澳大利亚、澳洲,是全球面积第六大的国家,大洋洲最大的国家和南半球第二大的国家,仅次于巴西。澳大利亚国土包括澳大利亚大陆,塔斯曼尼亚岛以及数个海外的岛屿,面积和美国本土相似,是世界上唯一一个国土覆盖整个大陆的国家。

澳大利亚一词源于拉丁语,意思为“未知的南方大陆”(terra australis incognita)。其所在的地理学位置通常称作澳大利亚大陆,是地球上最小的大陆板块,也是南半球最大的岛屿。澳大利亚人均拥有国土面积0.353平方公里,是世界最广阔的国家之一,有多样的自然景观,包括热带雨林、别称为“红色中心”的沙漠、吸引很多旅客的海滨及驰名遐迩的自然遗产大堡礁及乌鲁汝。澳大利亚和美国是并列拥有世界自然遗产最多的国家。经济成就亦属世界高度发达国家。澳大利亚是全球第12大经济体,人均国民生产总值排名世界第5,并被瑞士信贷集团列为世界财富中值最高的国家。
地理
东南部的科修斯科山海拔2230米,是全澳最高峰。东北部沿海的大堡礁是全球最大的珊瑚礁。澳大利亚大盆地为世界最大的自流盆地。澳大利亚于2012年11月设立全球最大的海洋保护区[1],以保护澳大利亚6块水域、共230万平方公里的海洋环境。
气候
气候上西部高原和内陆沙漠属热带沙漠气候,乾旱少雨,年降水量仅100-300毫米;北部属热带草原气候,年降水量1000-2300毫米,为全国多雨区,少部份属亚热带;东部新英格兰山地以南属温带阔叶林气候,年降水量500~1,200毫米。年均温北部为27℃,南部14℃。[2]
依柯本气候分类法分析的澳大利亚气候图

澳洲投资移民 | 卓越移民

 生态
澳大利亚的豆科植物种类繁多且本地特有,它们能与根瘤菌和菌根真菌共生,因此较适应较贫瘠的土壤。澳大利亚出名的动物有单孔目(如鸭嘴兽和针鼹)、有袋类(如袋鼠、树袋熊和袋熊,其中拳击袋鼠还是澳大利亚的国家象徵)、湾鳄和澹水鳄、鸸鹋和笑翠鸟等鸟类。澳大利亚的毒蛇数量在世界之最。基于“生物多样性行动计画”,设立了许多受保护地区以保育独特的生态系统;64个湿地根据《湿地公约》而登记;另有16个世界遗产。“环境可持续指数”公佈于2005年,澳大利亚在2006年排名全球第13。[3]

栖息于桉树上的树袋熊

澳大利亚投资移民 | 卓越移民

澳洲行政区划图
经济和艺术
澳大利亚为南半球经济最发达的国家,亦是世界经济最发达的国家之一。人口只有2200万的澳大利亚2010年创造了14800亿美元的国内生产总值,居全球第十三位;人均国内生产总值高达65000美元,居全球第六位,远高于同是英语国家的美国、英国和加拿大;人类发展指数雄踞世界第二名,仅次于挪威。澳大利亚是世界十大农产品出口国和六大矿产资源出口国之一。被称作“骑在羊背上的国家”、“坐在矿车上的国家”和“手持麦穗的国家”。澳大利亚的金融业,商业和服务业也极为发达。此外,澳大利亚的旅游业也在全球名列前茅。
澳洲投资移民签证 | 卓越移民
布里斯班中央商业区
澳大利亚的艺术公认为世上最具活力国家之一,丰富多彩,具有独特性。自淘金热以来,建筑风格同时趋向华丽典雅,并着重遗产保护。现今的重要建筑,如布里斯班故事桥、坎培拉国立美术馆、墨尔本维多利亚艺术中心,悉尼歌剧院(丹麦建筑师乌特松设计,澳大利亚建筑师彼得·霍尔完成)等。首都坎培拉乃预定规划、以祥和四方为尚的人造城市,在当时被视为建筑师的“操练场”。当地气候适合全盘引进美国加利福尼亚州、地中海和亚洲热带地区的建筑风格。澳大利亚建筑业很注重节能环保,法律严格规定了许多建材用料的标准。
澳大利亚投资移民签证 | 卓越移民
澳洲人口变化分佈
 人口
澳大利亚全国人口为2203万人[2009]。多数澳大利亚白色人种的祖先是19、20世纪的英国移民。来自其他国家者也很多,澳大利亚与美国一样是外来移民人口比例占绝多数的国家,其外来移民数量更居世界第一。[4]
近年来澳大利亚东岸的一些国际化大都市,如悉尼、布里斯班和墨尔本以其高福利、高薪水以及良好的经济氛围吸引了包括美国在内的很多北美以及南美的新移民。而中国近年来超过英国等欧洲国家成为澳大利亚单年度最大移民的来源国。
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